João JALLES, a Portuguese national, is an Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Lisbon. Previously he was a Senior Economist at the Portuguese Public Finance Council. Before that he spent 5 years at the IMF. Before joining the Fund, João was an Economist at the OECD and at the ECB. Academically, he was an Invited Lecturer at Sciences Po, Assistant Professor at the University of Aberdeen and he also taught at the University of Cambridge and at the New University of Lisbon. João holds a Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Cambridge. His main research interest are: applied macroeconomics, fiscal policy, structural reforms, macro-financial linkages and energy economics. He has written extensively having published more than 130 academic papers in refereed journals. João is among the top 1% economic authors in the World and top 1% economic authors in Europe/Portugal based on IDEAS database (the largest bibliographic database dedicated to Economics).